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    Sharon Presley, The Origin of the Word “Libertarian” + How is Libertarian feminism different from other feminisms ?

    Johnathan R. Razorback
    Johnathan R. Razorback

    Messages : 18036
    Date d'inscription : 12/08/2013
    Localisation : France

    Sharon Presley, The Origin of the Word “Libertarian” + How is Libertarian feminism different from other feminisms ? Empty Sharon Presley, The Origin of the Word “Libertarian” + How is Libertarian feminism different from other feminisms ?

    Message par Johnathan R. Razorback Sam 29 Sep - 14:21


    Jeffrey Tucker recently wrote about the origin of the word “libertarian.” Unfortunately his commentary was off the mark by a mile. He writes “To be sure, if we go back a century, you will find a 1913 book Liberty and the Great Libertarians by Charles Sprading ... It includes biographies of many classical liberals but also some radicals in general who didn’t seem to have much affection for modern commercial society. It’s a good book but, so far as I can tell, the use of the term in this book is an outlier.”1
    No, the term was not an outlier at all. It was used extensively by anarchists in the 19th century as an alternative description because the term “anarchist” was not well-received, to say the least.
    According to the online Anarchist Library:
     “The first anarchist journal to use the term “libertarian” was La Libertaire, Journal du  Mouvement Social. Somewhat ironically, given recent developments in America, it was  published in New York between 1858 and 1861 by French communist-anarchist Joseph  Déjacque. The next recorded use of the term was in Europe, when “libertarian  communism” was used at a French regional anarchist Congress at Le Havre (16–22  November, 1880). January the following year saw a French manifesto issued on “Libertarian  or Anarchist Communism.” Finally, 1895 saw leading anarchists Sébastien Faure and Louise  Michel publish La Libertaire in France.
    It should be noted that Nettlau’s history was first written in 1932 and revised in 1934.  George Woodcock, in his history of anarchism, reported the same facts as regards Déjacque  and Faure [Anarchism: A History of libertarian ideas and movements, p. 233] Significantly,  Woodcock’s account was written in 1962 and makes no mention of right-wing use of the  term “libertarian.” More recently, Robert Graham states that Déjacque’s act made “him the  first person to use the word ‘libertarian’ as synonymous with ‘anarchist’” while Faure and Michel  were “popularising the use of the word ‘libertarian’ as a synonym for ‘anarchist.’” [Robert  Graham (Ed.), Anarchism: A Documentary History of Libertarian Ideas, p. 60 and p. 231]”
    “In terms of America, we find Benjamin Tucker (a leading individualist anarchist)  discussing “libertarian solutions” to land use in February, 1897.”2

    However, according to Wikipedia, “The first recorded use of the term “libertarian” was in 1789, when William Belsham wrote about libertarianism in the context of metaphysics.”  
    “Libertarian” came to mean an advocate or defender of liberty, especially in the political and  social spheres, as early as 1796, when the London Packet printed on 12 February: "Lately  marched out of the Prison at Bristol, 450 of the French Libertarians".[12]The word was again  used in a political sense in 1802 in a short piece critiquing a poem by "the author of Gebir"  and has since been used with this meaning.”3

    The Merriam Webster dictionary gives the same date.4

    According to Wikipedia:
     In the 19th century, key libertarian thinkers, individualist anarchists and minarchists, were  based in the United States, most notably Lysander Spooner and Benjamin Tucker. These  political thinkers argued that government should be kept to a minimum and that it is only  legitimate to the extent that people voluntarily support it as in Spooner's No Treason: The  Constitution of No Authority. American writers Henry David Thoreau and Ralph Waldo  Emerson advocated for individualism and even anarchism throughout that century, leaving a  significant imprint on libertarianism worldwide.5
    For a thorough history of libertarian ideas, see David Boaz’ commentary, “A History of Libertarianism.”6

    It should be noted that modern social anarchists are not at all happy that what they consider “their” word has been usurped by modern American individualist libertarians. My attitude -- social anarchists don’t get to define the word. It existed before them. If individualist anarchist Benjamin Tucker could use the term, so can modern individualist anarchists and, yes, modern libertarians. Words are defined partly by their usage so it’s too late, fellas. The libertarian “genie” is out of the bottle.

    1. Jeffrey Tucker, “Where Does the Term Libertarian Come from Anyway?, https://fee.org/articles/where-does-the-term-libertarian-come-from-anyway/, accessed March 16, 2018.
    2. The Anarchist FAQ Editorial Collective,
    “150 years of Libertarian,” https://theanarchistlibrary.org/library/the-anarchist-faq-editorial-collective-150-years-of-libertarian,Accessed March 16, 2018.
    3. Wikipedia, “Libertarianism in the United States, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Libertarianism_in_the_United_States, accessed March 16, 2018.
    4. Merriam Webster Dictionary, “Libertarian,”
    https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/libertarian, accessed March 16, 2018.
    5. Wikipedia, “Libertarianism in the United States, op cit.
    6. David Boaz, “A History of Libertarianism,” https://www.libertarianism.org/publications/essays/history-libertarianism, accessed March 18, 2018.


    « La question n’est pas de constater que les gens vivent plus ou moins pauvrement, mais toujours d’une manière qui leur échappe. » -Guy Debord, Critique de la séparation (1961).

    « Rien de grand ne s’est jamais accompli dans le monde sans passion. » -Hegel, La Raison dans l'Histoire.

    « Mais parfois le plus clair regard aime aussi l’ombre. » -Friedrich Hölderlin, "Pain et Vin".

      La date/heure actuelle est Mer 6 Déc - 14:26