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    William Graham Sumner, What Social Classes Owe to Each Other + What Makes the Rich Richer and the Poor Poorer + “Sociology” and “Socialism” (1881) + Protectionism: the -ism which teaches that waste makes wealth

    Johnathan R. Razorback
    Johnathan R. Razorback
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    Messages : 11472
    Date d'inscription : 12/08/2013
    Localisation : France

    William Graham Sumner, What Social Classes Owe to Each Other + What Makes the Rich Richer and the Poor Poorer + “Sociology” and “Socialism” (1881) + Protectionism: the -ism which teaches that waste makes wealth Empty William Graham Sumner, What Social Classes Owe to Each Other + What Makes the Rich Richer and the Poor Poorer + “Sociology” and “Socialism” (1881) + Protectionism: the -ism which teaches that waste makes wealth

    Message par Johnathan R. Razorback Ven 22 Fév - 16:14

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Graham_Sumner

    https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/What_Social_Classes_Owe_to_Each_Other

    "The hardships and calamities which are strictly social are such as come from disorder, violence, insecurity, covetousness, envy, etc. The state has for its function to repress all these. It appears from what I have said that it is hard to maintain a middle class on a high stage of civilization. If the state does not do its work properly, such classes, representing the wide distribution of comfort and well-being, will die out. If the state itself gives license to robbery and spoliation, or enforces almsgiving, it is working to destroy the whole middle class, and to divide society into two great classes, the rich who are growing richer, not by industry but by spoliation, and the poor who are growing poorer, not by industrial weakness but by oppression.

    Now, a state which is in any degree socialistic is in that degree on the line of policy whose disastrous effects have here been described. The state, it cannot too often be repeated, has nothing, and can give nothing, which it does not take from somebody. Its victims must be those who have earned and saved, and they must be the broad, strong, middle classes, from whom alone any important contributions can be drawn. They must be impoverished. Its pets, whoever they may be, must be pauperized and proletarianized. Its agents alone—that is, those who, in the name of the state, perform the operation of taking from some to give to others—can become rich, and if ever such a state should be organized they may realize wealth beyond the dreams of a proconsul. [...]
    The modern middle class has been developed with, and in, an industrial civilization. In turn they have taken control of this civilization and developed social and civil institutions to accord with it. The organization which they have made is now called, in the cant of a certain school, "capitalism" and a "capitalistic system." It is the first organization of human society that ever has existed based on rights. By virtue of its own institutions, it now puts itself on trial and stands open to revision and correction whenever, on sober and rational grounds, revision can be shown to be necessary to guarantee the rights of any one. It is the first organization of human society that has ever tolerated dissent or criticism of itself. Nobles and peasants have never made anything but Poland and Russia. The proletariat has never made anything but revolution. The socialistic state holds out no promise that it will ever tolerate dissent. It will never consider the question of reform. It stands already on the same footing as all the old states. It knows that it is right, and all right. Of course, therefore, there is no place in it for reform. With extreme reconstructions of society, however, it may not be worth while to trouble ourselves; what we need to perceive is, that all socialistic measures, whatever their degree, have the same tendency and effect. It is they which may be always described as tending to make the rich richer and the poor poorer, and to extinguish the intervening classes.
    "
    -William Graham Sumner, "What Makes the Rich Richer and the Poor Poorer", Popular Science Monthly, Volume 30, January 1887.

    https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Popular_Science_Monthly/Volume_30/January_1887/What_Makes_the_Rich_Richer_and_the_Poor_Poorer

    http://www.robmacdougall.org/1805/1805_19_Sumner.pdf

    https://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/sumner-protectionism-the-ism-which-teaches-that-waste-makes-wealth





    _________________
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      La date/heure actuelle est Jeu 6 Oct - 14:41